A Brief History
Regulation of civil aviation activities began with the Post Office
Department in 1918 with the establishment of regularly scheduled airmail service
between New York, Philadelphia and Washington. However, it was not until 1926
that the Air Commerce Act initiated a civil airway system with navigational aids.
This Act, very important in the development of US civil aviation, stipulated that
airplanes and pilots were to be registered, examined and certificated.
The Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 established three agencies, requested by
the airlines, to regulate air safety and economics. These were:
* Civil Aeronautics Authority to legislate safety and economics.
* Administrator of Aviation to implement safety regulations
* Air Safety Board to investigate accidents.
In 1940, the Civil Aeronautics Act was amended, because of duplication in the
above three agencies. This amendment established the Civil Aeronautics
Administration (CAA) to be responsible for all safety regulations and the Civil
Aeronautics Board (CAB) to be responsible for all economic regulations and
accident investigations. The CAA was charged with generating and maintaining
Civil Air Regulations (CARs) governing every aspect of civil aviation from the
design and manufacture of the aircraft to its operation. However, a separate
agency, the Civil Aeronautics Agency was established to enforce the CARs.
In 1958, the Federal Aviation Act was enacted which established the
Federal Aviation Agency (FAA), a separate government agency reporting directly
to Congress and the President. Its functions were similar to those of the CAA
with the designation of the CARs changed to Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs).
Many of the CARs became FARs with minor changes. For example, FAR Part 23
which contains the criteria for the design of small airplanes was formally CAR 3,
to be found in the Civil Aviation Manual 3 (CAM 3). Airplanes originally certified
under CAR Part 3 continued to be manufactured after 1958 under the
requirements of that regulation rather than FAR Part 23. The CAB was left
essentially unchanged by the Act of 1958.
In 1966, President Lyndon Johnson created a twelfth cabinet department,
the Department of Transportation and the FAA was placed under this
Department. At the same time, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
was established and given the responsibility for accident investigations (for all
modes of transportation). The responsibilities of the CAB were redefined to
include only economics of civil air transportation including route structure, fares,
subsidies, mergers, accounting and statistical analyses.
In 1978, Congress passed the Airline Deregulation Act which was
implemented gradually over the next seven years resulting in the demise of the
CAB in 1985.
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was formed in 1947
after it was ratified by 26 countries. By 1975, it had grown to a membership of
131 nations. ICAO is divided into an Assembly, a Secretariat, and a Council. The
council is the governing body and has been effective in establishing standardized
procedures and practices in air transportation activities. These standards cover
such areas as licensing, flight rules, airworthiness standards, navigational charts,
meteorological data, radio communications, and airport design and facilities.
More recent items added to ICAO's standards are in the areas of aircraft noise and
security. A recent action of the ICAO in amending Annex 6 on the Operation of
Aircraft will require all commercial transports and general aviation aircraft over
12,500 lb, or those carrying more than nine passengers, to have a ground
proximity warning system starting January 1, 1999. The current rule requires
only transports having a gross weight of more than 33,000 lb to have GPWS - and
only if they were brought into service after July 11, 1979.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
The Federal Aviation Administration, with headquarters in Washington, DC,
is the federal agency which regulates nearly all phases of aviation ranging from
the design and manufacture of aircraft to their operation. To put it another way,
the FAA licenses aircraft and pilots and controls the operation of the aircraft by
the pilots. Aviation activities which come under the responsibilities of the FAA
* Air traffic control system including:
* Installation and maintenance of voice and
navigational radio systems
* Operation of flight service stations
* Operation of Radar facilities
* Operation of airport control towers
* Issuing of pilot medical certificates
* Licensing of pilots
* Gathering, analysis and documenting of statistical data
relating to airplane operations.
* Establishment of standards (FARs) to which aircraft must
* Regulation of the FARs to assure that an aircraft
complies with the applicable standards.
* Monitoring all aspects of aviation safety and issuing
communications and regulations as needed to assure
safety. The FAA can ground an airplane or a pilot if
either is deemed unsafe.
* Research and Development relating to all of the above.
* Airport construction, operation and security
* Certification of any domestic air carrier or operation
within the US.
* Foreign carriers operating US Registered aircraft
Although accident investigations are not a responsibility of the FAA, the
NTSB to provide expertise in analyzing air crashes frequently calls upon it.
The FAA conducts major operations in Washington, DC, Oklahoma City, OK,
and Atlantic City, NJ. All of the FAA's activities are overseen in their
headquarters in Washington while activities relating to medical aspects of
aviation are to be found in Oklahoma. The FAA's Technical Center, located along
side of the airport which serves Atlantic City, conducts, and contracts for,
research relating to the operation of aircraft. Many other FAA facilities and
offices exist to serve various regions of the US.
Check out the latest news
and developments relating to BCA.
|March 3, 2017, 9:34 am|
In one of the most egregious examples of police excess and violation of law perpetrated by HPD in recent times, two separate security systems from two different homeowners caught an HPD police officer and another uniformed officer illegally break into a Harris County home, destroy their surveillance system, illegally search the home with no one there, illegally go through their mail, and leave the home with the door open before the homeowners arrived back to their residence.
|November 9, 2016, 3:22 pm|
Today a jury verdict was returned regarding a lawsuit filed against Woven Metal Products, Inc. on behalf of Jacob Matthew Cadriel, who was killed on the job by a co-worker, Steven Damien Young. This tragic incident took place on April 1, 2015. On that date and on Woven Metal Products, Inc.’s workplace premises, co-worker Steven Damien Young reached into his waistband, pulled out a 38-caliber handgun and shot and killed Jacob. Young was arrested and charged with murder, and is now serving a 45 year sentence.
|October 3, 2016, 5:11 pm|
The motion picture depicting the 2010 Gulf oil spill hits theaters nationwide this weekend. So what, if anything, has changed since the Deepwater Horizon blast killed 11 oil rig workers?
|August 17, 2016, 8:49 am|
Buying a used car instead of a new one almost always makes good economic sense, unless you end up in Ann Nogast's old 2011 Honda Pilot.
|August 14, 2016, 11:23 pm|
Seven people were injured, including four critically, in an explosion at a Texas crude-oil plant, authorities said.
|May 9, 2016, 9:02 am|
Despite the $20 billion settlement BP PLC struck with the U.S. Department of Justice over the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, tens of thousands of lawsuits could hit the courts this month, adding to the oil company’s ballooning costs.
|May 2, 2016, 6:22 pm|
Those who have followed the Jefferson County Appraisal District (JCAD) case and story for the last year should be already aware that we have spent the duration of that period attempting to collect information and data on what we believed was an unfair rescheduling of 1.5 level homes.
|April 27, 2016, 8:57 am|
Six years after a deadly blowout sent a slick of oil floating along the Gulf Coast for months, BP PLC disclosed almost $1 billion in fresh charges that bring its total bill from the disaster to more than $56 billion and counting.
|April 20, 2016, 8:33 am|
With the enormous number of BP Oil Spill victims still waiting for resolution of their claims, BCA is providing this status update as a “reality check” of where are we now. Brent Coon’s comments and the link to the 2 minute video are below.
|April 19, 2016, 9:28 am|
Beaumont attorney Brent Coon said it was appropriate for him to host a press conference at his law office on April 15, the traditional tax day.
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